Electrical Safety

Introduction

Although electrical safety has improved over the years, and the majority of injuries are not severe, there are still around 30 deaths and several thousand injuries a year. The major dangers to health from electrical incidents are shock, burns, electrical explosion or arcing and fire. In addition, just over 10% of fires are due to the electrical installation. The Grenfell Tower fire in June 2017, which killed 71 people, was thought to have started in a faulty fridge; a fire in 2009 at Lakanal House, caused by a faulty television, resulted in six deaths. It is little surprise then that many landlords are concerned that their property may not be safe.

The purpose of this guide is to provide landlords with the tools to identify areas of risk around electrical safety. It will cover the various pieces of legislation that landlords should pay attention to in regard to electrical safety, as well as providing useful tips and guidance on how to comply with them.

What legislation covers electrical safety?

The legislation covering electrical safety for landlords tends not to be as prescriptive and inflexible as that for gas safety however, there is still the overriding requirement that for rented accommodation: -

  • the electrical installation and
  • any electrical equipment provided by the landlord
  • is safe and fit for its purpose.

The legislation which affects landlords can be divided into the general requirements covering the safety and maintenance of all rented premises such as disrepair under the Landlord and Tenant Act 1985 and the specific legislation which covers specific areas of electrical safety such as the safety of electric plugs under The plugs and sockets etc (safety) regulations 1994 etc.

There are also several codes particularly the Institute of Engineering Technology (IET) requirements and various British Standards which establish accepted standards for electrical works. BS 7671:2018 - referred to as the 18th Edition IET Wiring Regulations which came into force on 1 January 2019 - sets the standards for electrical installation in the UK and many other countries.

Although failure to comply with these codes may not be a direct offence in itself, not following their advice would be an indication that there may be a failure to comply with all legal obligations. They are used similar to the highway code in driving offences. For example, a particular item such as earthing may not comply with the current IET requirements, but it will not necessarily be "unsafe" or not in working order as a result.

Electrical safety also has an influence on fire safety for instance where an electric hazard causes a fire but also in the provision of electrical safety measures in case of fire such as fire alarm systems, emergency lighting etc. Please see the fire safety guidance for more details.

Under a residential tenancy there is a statutory implied obligation on the part of landlord to keep the electrical installations in good repair and proper working order.

The obligations on landlords are either enforced by the tenant etc. themselves, who may sue the landlord for damages, or by prosecution or notice by the enforcing authorities which may be the Local Council, Fire Authority or the Health & Safety Executive etc.

Some of the specific legislation affecting electrical safety: -

  • Building Regulations Part P requires that where certain electrical works are carried out in dwellings that reasonable provision be made in the design and installation of electrical installations to protect persons from fire or injury'. Enforced by Authorities.
  • Landlord & Tenant Act 1985 Section 11 imposes a repairing obligation on the landlord to keep electrical the installation in repair and in proper working order. Enforced by Tenant.
  • Defective Premises Act 1972 states a landlord is liable to be sued for damages if a tenant or resident is injured or their personal property is damaged as a result of defective electrical installation. Enforced by Tenant, Licensee, Visitor.
  • Housing Health & Safety Rating System (HHSRS) Housing Act 2004. Part 1 requires that a premises is reasonably safe and healthy for occupiers and visitors. The HHSRS covers 29 specific hazards including electric hazard and fire. Enforced by Authorities.
  • Property Licensing. Housing Act 2004. Part 2 & 3 covers both mandatory and discretionary licensing of HMOs and single household lettings. It is an offence to rent a premises where licensing applies unless the appropriate licence has been applied for. The licence will include terms and conditions which will include requires to keep electrical equipment in a safe condition and provide a declaration they are safe.
  • Homes (Fitness for Habitation) Act 2019 reintroduces the concept of fitness for habitation into the assessment of general housing conditions requiring that from 20 March 2019, at the start of a new tenancies and throughout its life that the premises is fit which combines both disrepair and the 29 hazards under HHSRS. Enforced by Tenant.
  • Management of Houses in Multiple Occupation (England) Regulations 2006 & 2007 requires that he manager must ensure that the common parts, fixtures, fittings and appliances are well maintained, in good repair and clean condition. Enforced by Authorities
  • Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 although aimed at the work environment frequently impacts on the rental sector as covers the self-employed and where any contractor or builder is employed. Enforced by Authorities.
  • Various Statutory Regulations such as the Electrical Safety Regulations and the Plugs and Sockets regulations. Enforced by Authorities.

Which areas of the property should I pay special attention to?

The majority of fatalities from an electric current are the result of deficiencies in plugs, leads, and appliances. Less than 10% of fatalities result from a deficiency in the electrical wiring and other installations.

Aside from deficient plugs, leads and appliances, 50% of fatalities involve mains wire or cables, 24% sockets, 13% light fittings and 10% a fuse or fuse board. Most accidents occur in the living or dining room (27%), kitchen (23%), or bedroom (18%). For adults the location is most likely to be the kitchen or the living/dining room, for children the living/dining room or bedroom.

Electrical installations

What is an electrical installation?

The definition of an "electrical installation" is "an assembly of associated electrical equipment supplied from a common original to fulfil a specific purpose and having certain co-ordinated characteristics". For the purpose of the Building Regulations effectively it is the fixed electrical cables or fixed electrical equipment which are located on the consumer side of the meter; not the appliance that actually uses the supply of electricity.

What should I aim for with my electrical installations?

A 'good' electrical installation should have:

  • Sufficient electric sockets for the number of portable appliances likely to be used, to minimise the use of multi-socket adapters, the number of appliance the average household now use has increased significantly and older dwellings are likely to have insufficient outlets for modern living
  • covers in place to ensure that fingers cannot come in contact with live parts
  • residual current device (RCD) protection where appropriate (an RCD provides additional protection against electric shock),
  • satisfactory earthing arrangements (earthing ensures that a fuse or circuit-breaker will operate fast enough to clear an electrical fault before it can cause danger of electric shock or fire),
  • satisfactory bonding arrangements (bonding ensures that any electric shock risk is minimised until the fault is cleared),
  • enough circuits to avoid danger and minimise inconvenience in the event of a fault, and
  • cables that are correctly selected in relation to their related fuse or circuit-breaker.

How often should I perform electrical installation testing?

BS 7671: 2018 as amended recommends that every electrical installation is periodically inspection and tested. The main purpose of periodic inspection and testing is to identify issues which may affect the safety of the electrical installation.

Any person carrying out the inspection and testing must be competent. The person must have sufficient knowledge and experience, be familiar with and understand BS7671, be able to carry out tests and procedures safely etc. They will then provide you with an Electrical Condition Report (EICR)

What is on the Electrical Installation Condition Report (EICR)?

The report should identify any damage, wear, defects and conditions that might affect safety. It should also identify any deficiencies which if corrected would contribute to a significant improvement in safety.

Four Classification Codes are used to identify any observations in the report

Code Meaning of Code Timeframes for response
C1 Danger present with a high risk of injury Immediate action required
C2 Potentially dangerous Urgent action required
C3 Improvement recommended Action should be taken when possible but not necessarily dangerous
FI Further investigation required Investigate further without delay

If the standards have changed since my last EICR, do I need to upgrade my installations?

BS 7671:2018 states that installations which have been constructed in accordance with earlier editions of the Standard may not comply with the current edition in every respect, but this does not necessarily mean that they are unsafe for continued use or require upgrading.

Be aware that from 1 January 2019 the 17th Edition of the IER Wiring Regs were replaced by the 18th Edition. It is likely that most existing installation will not be installed in accordance with the current edition however mere non-compliances that do not give rise to danger should not appear on the report.

When do I need to provide an Electrical Installation condition Report

Currently (Feb 2019) the only situation where an installation report is legally required is for residential premises under the HMO Management Regulations which requires any HMO (3 or more persons in 2 or more households) to have the electrical installation inspection at least every 5 years.

The Government have indicated that an electrical installation condition report will be required for all rented accommodation in the near future, but no date has yet been set.

However, it is still good practice to have the electrical installation inspected on a regular basis.

How many electric sockets do I need?

For dwellings in England and Wales, the Building Regulations state:

"Reasonable provision shall be made in the design and installation of electrical installations in order to protect persons operating, maintaining or altering installations from fire or injury".

In addition, BS 7671 IET Wiring Regulations states:

"Where mobile equipment is likely to be used, provision shall be made so that the equipment can be fed from an adjacent and conveniently accessible socket-outlet, taking account of the length of flexible cable normally fitted to portable appliances and luminaires".

For England and Wales there is no legal guidance on specific numbers but in Scotland, the Building Standards technical Handbook 2017: domestic buildings - gives the basis for assessing suitable numbers

To reduce these risks, a dwelling should be provided with at least the following number of 13A socket outlets:

  • 4 within each apartment, and
  • 6 within the kitchen, at least 3 of which should be situated above worktop level in addition to any outlets provided for floor-standing white goods or built-in appliances, and
  • an additional 4 anywhere in the dwelling, including at least 1 within each circulation area on a level or storey.

Sockets may be installed as single or double outlets, to give the recommended number of outlets in each space.

Do I need to check electrical equipment and appliances?

There is no legal requirement for landlords to provide electrical equipment or appliances other than that which may be necessary to provide adequate heating. If no equipment is provided by the landlord, the maintenance and safety requirement do not apply but be aware that unsafe equipment provided by a tenant can still create fire and safety concerns.

Under the Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 and Electrical Equipment (Safety) Regulations 2016 any electrical equipment or products supplied to a tenant must be safe and fit for purpose. It includes:

  • Landlords must ensure that electrical equipment conforms with the obligations of the manufacturer. Landlords must only use equipment from trusted and regulated manufacturers, whose workmanship has passed safety checks.
  • Landlords must check that all electrical equipment bears the CE mark and comes with instructions and safety information in English.
  • Landlords must remove any electrical equipment that does not bear the appropriate labels and marks or is not supplied with instructions.

What safety checks should I consider?

Whilst the law requires electrical equipment provided by the landlord it be maintained if it can cause danger; the law does not detail how nor how often. The Health and Safety Executive in - Maintaining portable electric equipment in low-risk environments Leaflet INGD236 9/13 - gives advice on one way to do this.

The leaflet recommends a three-step process

User Checks

The user of the equipment checks the appliance for obvious damage, overheating or other defects each time the appliance is used. Guidance to tenants by way of a leaflet can provide advice what to look for.

Formal Visual Inspection

Simple checks are carried out each time the premises is routinely inspected or at a change of tenancy. It does not need to be done by an electrician but the person must have sufficient knowledge to avoid danger and to know what to look for. Simple training on basic electrical knowledge may be necessary to equip someone to be able to carry out a visual inspection competently.

Check for any defects, overheating, damage, equipment is fit for purpose and the plug wiring of all equipment must be checked to ensure correct fuse, terminal screws tight, correct wiring, no internal plug damage etc.

Moulded plugs are recommended for appliances as only the fuse can, and need be. be checked.

Portable Appliance Test (PAT)

A portable appliance is anything that can be moved (even if with difficulty) and has a cable and plug.

Pat Check Class II Symbol

Not every items requires a PAT check, Class II equipment marked with a symbol are double insulated and do not need a test. The HSE guidance states that an annual check on all electrical appliances is not necessarily required, however some property licences do state annual inspection are necessary, which could be challenged. Guidance on recommended testing frequency can be found in the HSE leaflet.

The person testing portable electrical equipment should be appropriately trained and competent.

It is good practice, although not legally required, to keep a log of the PAT tests and attach test labels to the appliance. Be aware that the HSE state". If a label is applied, then there should not be a next test due date on it. The person carrying out the testing should not assess when the next test is due as this decision should be made by the dutyholder based on a risk assessment."

What else should I consider aside from inspecting the appliances?

The average success rate of an electrical product recall in the UK is just 10-20%, this means that there are potentially millions of recalled electrical items still in the UK

Landlords should register a product with the manufacturers so that they are directly informed if there should be a safety issue. It is likely that should injury or damage occur as a result of a landlord failing to return a defective appliance they could be held liable.

Unfortunately, in the UK the recall of products is fragmented but more advice can be found at the following sites

Electrical Safety First

Gov.uk - Fire safety risk

Do I have to replace broken, but safe, electrical equipment

Where the landlord provides Electrical Equipment including Kitchen White Goods then the landlord is responsible to ensure it is provided and maintained in a safe condition.

However, when it comes to replacing any broken, but safe, equipment there is no statutory requirement for the landlord to replace it. It is expressly excluded from Section 11 Landlord and Tenancy Act. If the contract states that the landlord will replace equipment then they must do so, but without such a clause the landlord cannot be forced to replace broken equipment.

Building Regulations

The Building Regulations govern standards for design and construction of buildings and aim:

  • To ensure the health and safety of people in or around those buildings
  • To control energy conservation &
  • Ensure safe access to and about buildings

The Building Regulations requires certain larger scale/serious works - notifiable works - to only be carried out once the local authority or private inspector have been notified or the works are carried out by a "competent Person Scheme" member.

Do I need to notify the building control of all works performed?

Certain less significant works known as non-notifiable or minor works can be carried out without having to notify building control or using a "competent Person Scheme" member but must still comply with standards.

For England, the rules were simplified in April 2013, so that notifiable work includes:

  • installation of one or more new circuits
  • installation of a replacement consumer unit (fuse box)
  • a completely new circuit connected to the consumer unit
  • new full electrical installation (new build)
  • circuit alteration or addition in a special location - i.e. work in and around a bath or shower.

If you are not sure whether the work you want to undertake is notifiable, you should contact your local authority building control department for advice.

For Wales, the Building Regulations notifiable work are more extensive and include:

  • a completely new installation or rewire
  • the replacement of a consumer unit (fuse box)
  • installation of a new circuit, a solar photovoltaic power supply
  • installation of electric ceiling or floor heating, an electrical generator, power / control wiring for a central heating system
  • most electrical works in a special location- a room containing a bath or shower, swimming pool or a sauna heater
  • extension of an existing circuit in a kitchen
  • Outside of the dwelling, the installation outside of building, supply to garage, shed etc, or to a pond, garden lighting or plug

All other work is non-notifiable.

If you are not sure whether the work you want to undertake is notifiable, you should contact your local authority building control department for advice.

Who can perform a building regulation compliance check?

Where the electrical installation work is notifiable it should be:

  • carried out an electrician is registered with a competent person self-certification scheme, or
  • checked by building control body either the local authority building control department or a private approved inspector, or
  • in England only, an electrician registered with a third-party certification scheme.

All electrical work, whether notifiable or not, must be designed and installed, and inspected, tested and certificated in accordance with BS 7671.

All electrical works must be complaint and the local authorities can take enforcement action if either notifiable or non-notifiable works are unsafe and not compliant.

Competent Person Scheme

An electrician registered with a competent person self-certification scheme authorised by the Secretary of State can self-certify that notifiable work is safe and complies with the Building Regulations. If you use a registered electrician, there is no need to notify a building control body.

The current competent person schemes for electrical installation are detailed in the following table

Type of installation Schemes
In dwellings - installation of fixed low or extra-low voltage electrical installations BESCA, Blue Flame Certification, Certsure, NAPIT, OFTEC, Stroma
In dwellings - fixed low or extra-low voltage electrical installations as part of other work being carried out by registered person APHC, BESCA, Blue Flame Certification, Certsure, NAPIT, Stroma
Buildings other than dwellings - installation of lighting or electrical heating systems BESCA, Blue Flame Certification, Certsure, ANPIT, Stroma

Third Party Certification

In England a person who is registered with a third party certification scheme for electrical installations in dwellings will be able to check domestic electrical work that is undertaken by others and certify that it is compliant with the building regulations. This allows electrical works to be carried out by an experienced person and their work to be certified by an authorised body.

The current two authorised bodies are

Scheme full name Short name Website Contact number
NAPIT Registration Limited NAPIT www.napit.org.uk 0845 543 0330
Stroma Certification Limited Stroma www.stroma.com 0845 621 1111

Which building regulations do I need to pay attention to?

Since 2005, all electrical work in dwellings in England and Wales, whether or not done professionally, must meet the requirements of Part P of the Building Regulations.

Part P is the approved document for Electrical Safety and is approved by the Secretary of State. The 'approved documents' provide guidance on how the building regulations can be satisfied in common building situations. There a 17 approved documents covering all areas of the Building Regulations and are made under the Building Act 1984 and whilst the building regulations can be satisfied in other ways, if the approved guidance is followed there is a presumption of compliance.

Part P requires that 'Reasonable provision shall be made in the design and installation of electrical installations in order to protect persons operating, maintaining or altering the installations from fire or injury.' It is in place to keep occupiers and visitors as safe as possible from electrical hazards, and applies to new domestic properties, as well as any alterations or additions to electrical installations in existing properties, including full or partial rewires.

Part P applies to electrical installations intended to operate at low or extra-low voltage, which includes 230 volts household mains voltages, that are:

  • In or attached to a dwelling.
  • In the common parts of a building serving one or more dwellings but excluding slifts.
  • In a building that receives its electricity from a source located within or shared with a dwelling.
  • In a garden or in or on land associated with a building where the electricity is from a source located within or shared with a dwelling.

The 2013 edition made several significant amendments including as mentioned, for England, a reduction in the range of the electrical installation work that is notifiable to a building control body. It also

  • Permitted installers who are not a registered a competent person to use a 'registered third-party certifier' to certify work, as an alternative to a using building control body.
  • The technical guidance refers to BS7671:2018 Requirements for Electrical Installations,

In effect Part P has incorporated BS 7671:2018 (18th Edition IET Wiring Regulations) into the standard for electrical works.

what are my obligations under the Landlord & Tenant Act 1985 section 11

The Act implies a term into most residential tenancies requiring the landlord

  • To keep in repair the structure and exterior of the dwelling-house (including drains, gutters and external pipes); and
  • To keep in repair and proper working order the installations in the dwelling-house for the supply of water, gas and electricity, and for sanitation (including basins, sinks, baths and sanitary conveniences but not other fixtures, fittings and appliances for making use of the supply of water, gas or electricity), and
  • To keep in repair and proper working order the installations in the dwelling house for space heating and heating water.

The obligation does not extend "to other fixtures, fittings and appliances for making use of the supply of water, gas or electricity". The repair of the electrical installation within the premises is included but the state of repair of electricals equipment is specifically excluded from the section.

The obligation does not apply to licences (rental agreements) nor to fixed term tenancies signed for 7 or more years.

What are my obligations under the Defective Premises Act 1972.

Section 4 places a general duty of care on landlords to ensure that tenants and visitors at the premises are reasonably safe from personal injury or damage to their property resulting from a failure to deal with "relevant defects". The duty applies where the landlord has a repairing obligation expressly stated in the contract or, such as that applied by section 11 Landlord and Tenants Act 1985.

The relevant defect must amount to disrepair in the strict sense. It does not extend to defects which are not repairs, nor to put the premises into a safe condition.

The duty applies if the landlord knew or ought to known of the relevant defect, regardless of whether or not the tenant/occupier had informed the landlord of it. This is one of the reasons why periodic property inspections are recommended.

Section 1 states that a person who erects or converts a building to provide a dwelling owes a duty to ensure that the work is done in a workmanlike/ professional manner, using proper materials so that the dwelling is fit for human habitation. The obligation not only extends to builders but to sub-contractors, including electricians, plumbers etc.

How does the Housing Health & Safety Rating System (HHSRS) impact on electrical safety?

The housing health and safety rating system (HHSRS) is a risk-based approach assisting local authorities in the identification and protection against potential risks and hazards to health and safety from any deficiencies identified in dwellings.

The HHSRS covers 29 hazards in residential accommodation, one of which is electrical hazards.

The landlord is responsible for the provision, state and proper working order of:

  • The exterior and structural elements of the dwelling this includes all elements essential to the dwelling including access, gardens, amenity spaces, the common parts outbuildings, garden yard walls etc.
  • The installations within and associated with the dwelling for:
    • the supply and use of water, gas and electricity
    • personal hygiene, sanitation and drainage
    • food safety
    • ventilation
    • space heating; and
    • heating water
  • in the common areas of HMOs, the landlord is also responsible for the furnishing and appliances. This includes floor coverings, cookers, washing machines, refrigerators, moveable space heaters, light bulbs etc

If the local authority discovery a significant electrical hazard, they will take enforcement action which can include Hazard Awareness Notice (informal notification), Improvement Notice, Prohibition Order or take Emergency Remedial Action. The landlord may also be charged a fee where a notice is served. Failure to comply may result in unlimited fine or a penalty notice of up to £30,000

If an improvement notice or emergency remedial action is used in England, the notice seeking possession under Section 21 Housing Act 1988 cannot be served for 6 months under retaliatory eviction legislation.

Do the various types of property licences impact on electrical safety?

The stated aim of licensing is to protect tenants from unscrupulous landlords and to reduce anti-social behaviour.

There are two categories of property licence - Mandatory Licensing of large HMOs, applying to all of England and Wales and Discretionary Licensing, of any other rented dwellings, but where it is up to the local authority whether or not to have a scheme and how much of the local authority area is affected.

Mandatory licensing of larger HMOs (5 or more persons in 2 or more households) applies to all areas of England and Wales. The Discretionary Schemes are locally operated and are set by the local authority and can cover Addition Licensing of certain smaller HMOs or Selective Licensing which can affect all privately rented lettings including single household tenancies.

A licence must be obtained for which there is normally a fee and each licence must have certain national terms and conditions attached but the local authority may add their own local terms and conditions.

The licence must include the mandatory term requiring the licence holder to keep electrical equipment in a safe condition and provide a declaration they are safe.

In a significant court case, Brown v Hyndburn Borough Council 2018 the Court of Appeal found licence terms can only be used to regulate the "management, use or occupation" of a house but must not be used to require "new facilities or equipment". The terms can only be used to maintain what is already provided, if additional requirements are required then the HHSRS, or other powers, would need to be used e.g. for emergency lighting, additional sockets etc

How will the Homes (Fitness for Habitation) Act 2019 impact on electrical safety?

In England only, from 20 March 2019 all new tenancies (of less than 7 years), including a renewal of an existing tenancy, an implied covenant is imposed to require the premises is fit for human habitation and is kept fit for human habitation throughout the tenancy.

Damages will be awarded if the premises is not fit and reasonably suitable for occupation.

In determining whether a house or dwelling is unfit for human habitation, regard shall be had to its condition in respect of the following matters -

  • repair,
  • stability,
  • freedom from damp,
  • internal arrangement,
  • natural lighting,
  • ventilation,
  • water supply,
  • drainage and sanitary conveniences,
  • facilities for preparation and cooking of food and for the disposal of waste water;

AND

  • in relation to a dwelling in England, any prescribed hazard;

"any prescribed hazards" are the 29 HHSRS Hazards under Housing Act 2004 Part 1, including the Electrical hazard.

The Act will allow action to be taken by a tenant for both disrepair and/or for any of the 29 HHSRS hazards. The Courts will decide how serious the risk from the hazard will need to be for an action to be successful.

It is not specifically included in the Act, but it is anticipated that the Courts will require landlords to have been notified that the deficiency exist, and time will be allowed for works to be completed. The Act may have significant impact where possession is being sort or where a NNSRS notice has been served, if a tenant has an accident etc.

Are there any specific requirements for all houses in multiple occupation (HMOs)?

Applies to all HMO's (not just licensable), the 2006 Regulations deals with bedsits and shared houses and the 2007 Regulations applies to some blocks of converted flats.

The individuals managing the property is required to maintain the premises and services including:

  • To display the name, address and phone number of manager
  • To keep means of fire escape free from obstruction
  • To keep people from injury e.g. from unsafe balconies etc.
  • To maintain common parts, water, drainage, fixtures and appliances
  • To maintain external parts in safe state & free from rubbish
  • The manager must not unreasonably cause the electric and gas supply to be interrupted
  • The manager must ensure that every fixed electrical installation is inspected and tested by a suitably qualified person, at intervals not exceeding five years
  • The manager must provide the electrical and gas inspection certificates within seven days of receiving a request of writing from the local housing authority

This legislation also places responsibilities on the tenant to:

  • Allow the manager access to the accommodation at all reasonable times to carry out the above duties
  • Conduct themselves in a way that will not hinder or frustrate the manager in the performance of their duties
  • Take reasonable care to avoid damaging the landlord's property.
  • Comply with reasonable instructions regarding fire safety at the property

The regulations require that the electrical installation to be inspected every 5 years and if requested by the Local Authority the test certificate be forwarded to them within 7 days.

The electric installation and electric equipment in common parts must be maintained. There is no legal requirement for time to be provided to remedy an issue.

The Government have indicated that the testing of the electrical installation will be extended to all tenancies in the near future.

Are they any specific regulations around plugs and sockets

The Plugs and Sockets Regulations (PSR) gives statutory force to relevant British Standards.

So far as standard plugs i.e. three pin plugs, are concerned no person may supply a standard plug unless it is of an approved type. Any other type of plug or any socket or adapter can only be supplied if it complies with the relevant British Standard. Additionally, any standard plug must also have a fuse link which complies with the relevant British Standard.

Where there is the appliance with a flexible cord or cable for domestic use. A standard plug must be fitted and be of an approved type together with a properly rated fuse.

There are information requirements to accompany standard plugs or approved conversion plugs.

Are there any duties imposed by the Electricity at Work Regulations 1989?

Electrical installations carried out by persons on whom duties are imposed by the Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 must meet the requirements of those Regulations.

The Regulations require that electrical work is only carried out by persons that are competent to prevent danger and injury while doing it, or who are appropriately supervised.

The Regulations set general requirements for the design, construction and suitability of equipment for its intended use

Are there any requirements under the Electromagnetic Compatibility Regulations 2016?

The Regulations require that the electromagnetic disturbance generated by electrical or electronic equipment does not exceed a level above which radio and telecommunications equipment and other equipment cannot operate as intended.

All equipment must have an adequate level of resistance to electromagnetic intrusion.

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